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Smart Sustainable Electrical Energy Systems (SSEES)

An SSEES uses distributed generation with several enabling technologies, such as renewable energy sources, combined heat and power, and energy storage. On the regulatory side, pricing structures like time-of-use billing provide incentives for peak shaving and other demand-side management initiatives, encouraging customers to use distributed generation and/or energy storage. These technologies decrease energy produced by traditional power plants by increasing energy obtained from renewable sources, reducing power losses in distribution and transmission systems, recovering waste heat from power generation or boiler systems, and increasing the efficiency of existing generation sources by improving their utilization. Additionally, the presence of distributed generation and energy storage improves reliability by allowing for islanded operation in the case of grid failure using the “local energy network” (microgrid) concept. This leads to tangible benefits; for example, reducing consumption and emissions from carbon-based fuels, long-term cost savings for both utilities and customers, and improving system reliability